As of 2010, there are about 48.5 million couples suffering from primary and secondary infertility, worldwide. This data paints a stark picture about the declining reproductive capacity. Although there are a number of reasons for infertility in men, below we will touch on the most common biological reasons of it.

Reproductive Tract Infections

This is known to affect both men and women. The infection whose main cause is sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has the tendency to scar and block the ejaculatory ducts in men as well as other reproductive organs and leads to infertility issues.

Varicocele

This is a condition of dilated scrotal veins where one or both testicles in men get affected. However, dilated varicose veins are a common occurrence in both fertile and infertile men. Due to this condition, the temperature in the testicles rise and leads to low sperm count. This altered sperm production causes issues with the flow of sperms and blocks the tube that transports the sperm. In case of a genital infection along with this condition, it can cause problems in ejaculation and thereby cause infertility in men.

Prostatitis

This is an infection in the prostate gland in men and is also known to be one of the reasons causing infertility. The symptoms for this condition include pain during or after ejaculation as well as painful urination.

Hormonal Imbalance

This occurs when the levels of testosterone and estrogen are disturbed due to lifestyle choices or thyroid issues. The imbalance can render men either impotent or create erectile dysfunction, thereby causing infertility.

Abnormal Sperm Functioning

This occurs, when three conditions to be fulfilled by the sperm – Hypo-Osmotic Swelling, Acrosomal Status and Nuclear Chromatin Decondensation – are not functioning properly. With this disorder, even if the sperm fertilizes the egg, it leads to an unsustainable embryo development and results in early pregnancy loss.

Cystic Fibrosis and Klinefelter’s Syndrome

This is a genetic disorder which is most likely inherited by men from within the family genes. Cystic fibrosis is when the pancreas gets scarred and eventually forms a cyst resulting in infertility. Klinefelter’s syndrome relates to an extra X chromosome in men. Normally, men are born with a pair of XY chromosomes and women with a pair of XX chromosomes. In this syndrome, instead of a normal XY chromosome, men are born with XXY chromosome. This leads to stunted production of the male hormone – testosterone – and thereby leads to infertility in men.

General Illnesses

Sometimes, general illnesses like kidney diseases, abnormal testicular growth, infections, traumatic damage and cirrhosis are also know to effect the sperm production in men. These conditions too can have an effect on the infertility issues in men.

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