As of 2010, there are about 48.5 million couples suffering from primary and secondary infertility, worldwide. This data paints a stark picture of the declining reproductive capacity. Although there are a number of reasons for infertility in women, below we will touch on the most common biological reasons which cause it.
The tissue fragments from the innermost lining of the uterus constitute the pelvic cavity in a woman. When these tissues grow and start accumulating outside the uterus instead of shedding vaginally with normal menstrual blood, this becomes a cause of infertility. These tissues can overtime scar the ovaries and the fallopian tube ends, thereby preventing the sperm from meeting the egg.
Reproductive Tract Infections.
This is known to affect both women and men. The infection has the tendency to spread to the fallopian tubes. This, in turn, can damage the tube and prevent the egg from traveling into the uterus, thereby leading to infertility in women.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).
This affects a woman’s upper reproductive system in all its entirety, causing inflammation in the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. Although the most common reason for this inflammation is sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), this condition can also develop due to complications in childbirth, abortion, curettage surgery, and dilatation. PID can cause infertility with a risk of 15%-50%.
Irregular menstruation cycles and hormonal imbalances can lead to infrequent ovulation and are known to be the cause of about 20% of infertility issues in women. The most common symptoms of erratic menstruation cycles are low body weight, rapid weight loss, and obesity. The hormonal irregularities can also lead to problems like thyroid, pituitary-gland issues, and adrenal-gland issues. All of these are known to interfere with fertility in women.
Abnormalities in Uterus.
This condition too accounts for almost 20% of infertility issues in women. The abnormalities in the shape and lining of the uterus walls can cause fibroid tumors and uterine polyps. These conditions aggravate the menstrual bleeding and pain in the pelvic area along with enlarging the uterus. The irregularities, in turn, develop complications in the pelvic cavity and growth of scar tissues which lead to miscarriages and the inability to conceive healthily.
This is the most common female endocrine disorder affecting almost 1 out of every 15 women. This condition causes cysts to form on the ovary walls thereby causing immense pain in the pelvic area and irregularities in the ovulation process. However, it should be noted that not all women who suffer from polycystic ovaries are unable to conceive. Infertility due to this condition occurs when the sex hormones in the body become unbalanced and start producing small amounts of male sex hormones. This interrupts the ovulation process and leads to infertility in women.